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Unit 2 Marketing Intelligence Assignment

Q2.1 Evaluate different types of market research techniquesUnit 2 Marketing Intelligence Assignment

Market research is the process used by the organisations to identify the requirements and needs of the customers along with the current market trends. Market research allows the organisations to efficiently identify, analyse, anticipate and satisfy the needs of the customers in the market. The process of market research allows the organisations to identify the opportunities and threats of a product in the current market situations (Burns, 2006).

There are two methodologies for the market research as mentioned below along with their advantages and disadvantages.

  • Quantitative market research – This type of market research method requires the organisation to collect numeric data about the market. These numeric data about the market reveals the size of the market, the sales growth possible for a product and demographics of the customers in the market. The examples of this type of market research are surveys, questionnaires, sales reports and financial trends. This type ofechnique includes a large number of participants (Malhotra, 2008).
  • Qualitative market research – This type of market research method generally collects views and opinions of the current and potential customers. This includes a small number of participants. The examples of such research methods are interviews, focus groups and in-depth discussions. The data collected in this method takes more time to be processed but reveals the needs of the customers in a better way.

Q2.2 Use sources of secondary data to achieve marketing research objectives

  • Secondary data – This is defined as the data that has been collected, processed, stored and managed by organisations, agencies or firms other than the one carrying out the market research. Secondary data are available in two forms such as quantitative and qualitative.  The international shipping company can be benefited by the secondary data collected by several agencies and regulatory bodies. These secondary sources of data provide a lot of information to the international shipping company which are not provided by the government sources. The information from these secondary sources allow the shipping company to get a more insight view of the UK market.
  • Sources of secondary data– There are several sources of the secondary data for the given shipping company which can be classified into two major categories such as published and unpublished sources (Burns, 2006).
  • Published sources – Government publications and reports showing the total shipping activities, monetary resources transfer and profits in UK are the major sources of secondary data for the given shipping company.International regulatory bodies also publish timely reports regarding the shipping business in the UK along with some private firms and agencies.

Reports in newspapers, magazines and committees in UK also act as secondary sources of data for the shipping company (Malhotra, 2008).

  • Unpublished sources –  There are several data that are processed, stored and managed by government, private firms, agencies and other regulatory bodies in the UK that are not published. These data are also available in the organisation itself. These unpublished data also act as secondary sources of data for the shipping company carrying the market research.

2.3  Assess the validity and reliability of market research findings

Limitations of market research findings

There are several limitations of the market research findings which pose questions regarding their validity and reliability. The marketing research process doesn’t replace the decision making process. It means that the market research process proUnit 2 Marketing Intelligence Assignmentvides only suggestions for the business processes of manufacturing, marketing and promoting a product, not the solution.  The accuracy of the market research findings is not perfect. The market research methods often consume large amount of time (Burns, 2006). The conclusions of the market research methods are not always dependable. The market research techniques are generally expensive. The market research findings don’t cover all the marketing challenges and issues.

The validity of a market research defines whether the research is measuring what it is expected to measure. The validity of a market research can be ensured by always keeping the goal of the research in mind, using the most reliable and accurate secondary sources of data and engaging the personnel who clearly understand the goal of the research.

The market research can be made reliable by communicating to the right individuals, using only customer language, avoiding artificial choices, using semantic scales and analysing the research data. By carrying out all the mentioned steps, we can ensure the reliability of the market research (Malhotra, 2008). The surveys to be done for a particular product of a company should be done in the language local to the geographic area of operation.

2.4  Propose a marketing research plan to obtain information in a given situation

  • Background – The Fresh Olive Company is a well-established olive oil manufacturer in the UK. The company is looking to launch a new product, an extra healthy olive oil product into the market.
  • Rationale– The rationale of the market research is to identify and analyse the needs of the customers in the market regarding olive oil and understand the opportunities and threats for the new product of The Fresh Olive Company in the market.
  • Objective – The objectives of the market research are to analyse the opportunities and threats to the new product, the usage of olive oil in the market and the competitors in the same industry.
  • Methodology – The exploratory section of objectives of the research require the qualitative information collected by the qualitative research methods including focus groups having light and heavy users of the olive oil. The quantitative data from the surveys and questionnaires suggest the total usage of the olive oil in the market (Burns, 2006).
  • Analysing the dataStatistical market research tools along with several sampling methods are used to analyse the data collected from primary and secondary sources (Malhotra, 2008).
  • Timeframe – The research should be completed in 20 weeks which have been divided properly for different activities. These activities also have overlapping weeks in some situations.
  • Budget – The budget allocated for qualitative research is £18,000 and for quantitative research is £20,000. The remaining activities have to be completed within £12,000.

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Marketing Intelligence Assignment

LO1  Using an example of your choice, describe the main stages that an individual customer goes through when making a purchase. (i.e. business –to-consumer Marketing Intelligence Assignmentdecision making process).

1.1 Describe the main stages of the purchase decision-making process

There are several stages in a business-to-customer decision-making process. Suppose a customer is buying a television. This entire purchase process has several stages. In the first stage, the customer recognises his or her need for a new television. In the next stage the customer searches for information regarding the various models of television provided by several manufacturers (Saaty, 1999). In this stage the customer also searches for information regarding the range of televisions sold by various retailers. Then in the next stage, the customer compares the alternatives with each other. This process includes the features of the different models of television provided by various manufacturers. After the customer evaluates all the alternatives of a new television, he or she decides a particular model of a particular manufacturer depending on his or her requirement, needs and preference. After the choice for a particular model is done, the customer chooses a retailer selling the television at the best price or with the best offer. Then the customer buys the television. This stage of purchase decision stage includes all the monetary transactions for the television. After the customer buys the television and uses it for some time, he or she starts to evaluate the purchase decision. This is the last stage of business-to-consumer decision making process (Sheth, 1973). The example given above about the decision making process of a television includes all the activities related to the recognising the needs, searching of information, evaluating the alternatives, purchasing and evaluating the purchase decision.

Q1.2. Explain theories of buyer behaviour in terms of individuals and markets

Buyer behaviour is basically the process in which individuals, groups or organisations make the decision of buying a product. This is the concept which allows the manufacturers and sellers of the products to understand and identify the requirements and needs of the customers. There are several theories and approaches used by an organisation to determine the buyer behaviour. Take Sony as the example of the organisation which has positioned their product Bravia as a brand.Marketing Intelligence Assignment

  • Economic consumer – This theory of organisation behaviour suggests that the consumer evaluates all the possible options and their costs in the most proper way and then makes the buying decision. For example the television manufacturer Sony using this theory will try to determine the requirements and needs of the consumer and try to provide them the same in low cost. This will motivate Sony to manufacture televisions that cover starting from all the basic requirements of the consumer in low cost to all the advanced features in high cost (Saaty, 1999).
  • Behaviourist approach – This theory suggests that the buyer behaviour is heavily influenced by the behaviour of the individual and the background society, culture and family. A clothing manufacturer like Shapiro identifies the clothing needs of the ladies in the market according to their culture, society and family backgrounds. This forces Shapiro to sell the clothing line which is acceptable by the market’s culture and society (Sheth, 1973). Sony launches the ranges of products in different geographic regions depending on the behaviour of the customers in that region.

Q1.3  Explain the factors that affect buyer behaviour

  • Cultural factors – Cultural values are passed in the family from generations to the next. The country or place the consumer leaves in has its own cultural values and beliefs. All of these cultural values affect the personal behaviour of the consumer (Saaty, 1999). For example the UK based cloth manufacturer, Shapiro has to sell only those clothing lines in the current market which is suitable and applicable to the culture and society of the market. The consumer prefers the products and services which are applicable to their culture.
  • Personal factors – Some of the personal factors that affect the buyer behaviour of the consumer are age, gender, education, social status, economic status, lifestyle, personality, family background etc. For example the economic status of a person affects his or her decisions while buying a product. Suppose the shoe manufacturer Nike introduces a new range of casual shoes signed by celebrities for a very high cost (Sheth, 1973). The person having a weak to moderate economic status won’t be able to invest such a high amount of money for a pair of shoes. Sometimes the question is not about whether a person can afford the product or not, but whether he or she wants to pay that much for that product. For example, a person having a low economic status won’t buy a sports car.

Q1.4  Evaluate the relationship between brand loyalty, corporate image and repeat purchase

Coke is an established brand of “The Coca-Cola Company”. The brand is something that distinguishes the product of a company from the similar products of the other companies. This brand can be the name, sign, logo, symbol, design or any other feature of the product that acquires a special place in the minds of the customers. The product “Coke” of “The Coca-Cola Company” has been placed as a well-known brand in the world by its symbol, logo and unique taste. The term “Brand loyalty” means that the customers who buy Coke prefer it over all the other alternatives i.e. the customers are loyal to the brand “Coke” (Martenson, 2007).Marketing Intelligence Assignment

Corporate image is the status of the company in the eyes of common population across the world. The corporate image of a company defines the success of the company and its various products. The Coca-Cola Company has a strong corporate image due to its success in the soft drinks market (Nguyen, 2001). The term “Repeat purchase” defines the process of loyal customers buying a product of the company like The Coca-Cola Company over and over due to its unique qualities.

The link between corporate image, brand loyalty and repeat purchase can be defined in the following way. The placement of Coke as a well-known brand helped The Coca-Cola Company to increase its brand loyalty in the market, which in turn strengthened the corporate image of The Coca-Cola Company. Strong brand loyalty and corporate image caused customers to buy Coke repeatedly, which in turn means increase in the repeat purchase of the products of the company.

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Computer Games Design and Development Assignment

IntroductionComputer Games Design and Development Assignment

1.1 Difference between serious and entertainment games and types of platforms

Computer games are organized in a set of categories or they can be categorized under different genres. A brief explanation about the types of game genre is as follows:-

Gaming Types

Action: Action games include challenges such as completing a task in a limited period of time with handful of resources. Every basic action game has a player and an enemy. Action games generally run at a fast pace and include a lot of reflexes. Action games use a combination of buttons to provide different functionality
Adventure: Adventure games generally include completing a task such as a rescue mission or to reach at a particular end. These games are mainly single player games and have a back story attached it with. Adventure games may start in flashback or use history for some information.
Puzzle: Puzzles introduces use of logical reasoning rather than much use of reflexes as in other games. These games usually have colored shapes or components and basically involve different levels. At each increasing level the difficulty related to logical reasoning is increased many folds.

Gaming Platforms

Gaming platforms provide a base on which computer games run. Each computer game has its own minimum requirements which the hardware must meet on which the game is to be played. Some of these platforms are described below:-
Personal Computers: PC’s are the most common hardware on which we run our computer games. Games can be loaded on PC’s either using a CD-ROM or DVD’s or can be downloaded from the web. These games generally use keyboard keys and mouse as primary input. On personal computers multiplayer games can be played easily and users can communicate with each other via headsets.
Mobile Phone: Mobile phone or cell phone is one such platform on which games can be downloaded and played easily. As cell phones are mobile so gaming can be done anywhere anytime. No extra wires or external input interfaces are required. Due to so many advantages mobile phones are becoming the most popular platform for games.

1.2 Evaluate the user interaction

Different methods of user interactionComputer Games Design and Development Assignment

Every game made interacts with the user using its interface. The user interface is the most important part of a game. Based on certain characteristics of the user interface the likeness of the game is decided. Some of those characteristics are described as follows:-

Responsive:-  Responsive means the game should not only be fast but it should also provide some feedback to user. No game should make the user wait too long or br sluggish. Feedback to user can be in the form some kind of message being displayed after a certain period of time.
Clearity:-  User interface of any computer game should be clear. The designing should be done in such away that it becomes easier for the player to understand the game quickly. Clarity can be increased many folds by using correct color combinations, fonts and icons.
Attractive:-Attraction is one of the key characteristics of a good game. Besides being clear and responsive and easy to understand a game should be attractive too. Attraction can be achieved by using good colors and appealing images.
Efficient:- A good game should run the same ever time it is played. Efficiency can defined in terms of speed and memory. A good game is fast and uses minimum memory. A efficient games never lags during its execution.

1.3 Evaluate the impact of computer based gaming

Impact of serious games for social inclusion to improve lifestyles

Computer based gaming has both positive and negative effects on society. These effects would continue to grow as the level gaming increases.

Positive Effects of gaming

Improved thinking and strategy skills: Many of computer games involve completion of a task in a specific period of time and mostly it is achieved in a team. So in order to complete the task effectively in the given time and with the use of limited resources, the player needs to develop a efficient strategy so that the goal is achieved. This helps in developing the thinking skills.
Hand-Eye coordination: Computer games comprise simultaneous use of external devices like mouse and keyboard. Thus by playing computer games hand and eye coordination of the player increases as the player needs to take care of many things simultaneously like firing at the correct aim and simultaneously moving and jumping.
Mainstream application development: With new computer games coming in the market the makers now focus on making games which are easy to use and thus to achieve this goal new devices are developed which are mostly wireless and all the work is done mainly by the operating systems. The player does not need to enter instructions like the old days, only a click is enough to start the game. Thus computer games have helped in developing the technology.Computer Games Design and Development Assignment

Negative Effects of gaming

Social Isolation:Spending too much time on playing games makes the player isolate completely from the society. Users spend lots of recreational time in playing games and they decrease their ability of integrating with others. Due to computer games people start weighing virtual environment more than the real environment which leads a bad impact.
Education:Studies have shown that gamers that are indulge into gaming to a higher extent neglect studies to such an extent that they are dropped out from schools or colleges. Many students are not able to complete their education just because of computer games attraction.

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Unit 4 Local Area Networking Technologies Assignment

1.2    Quality of Service (QoS) and Bandwidth ManagementUnit 4 Local Area Networking Technologies Assignment
Quality of Service (QoS) is defined in several ways. QoS is a set of methods to oversee committed transmission capacity, deferral, jitter, and bundles misfortune for streams in a system. The motivation behind every QoS instrument is to impact no less than one of these four attributes and, now and again, each of the four of these.
The main reasons that can affect QoS are:

  • •    Latency
  • •    Jitter
  • •    Loss

1.2.1    Latency
In an IP network, latency is defined as the time taken for a packet to enter and leave the network. As shown in Figure  packet A enters the network at time = t0 and leaves the network at time = t1. The latency of the network, t2, for packet A, in this case, is t1 t0.

Network Latency Diagram
Figure 3: Network Latency Diagram

Note that latency is an end-to-end measurement of network delay. The time, t2, is the total delay introduced from various components of the network. These include transmission technology used, the speed at which packets can be forwarded at each intermediate node, and the various transmission speeds along the way.
1.2.2    Jitter
Jitter is affected by the traffic condition in the network. As a video packet traverses the network, it has to contend with packets from other applications along the way (for example, FTP and web applications). The latter two applications have a very different characteristic from that of the video: They are bursty by nature and may transmit variable-sized packets. The network needs to ensure that the jitter for the voice and video is not affected by these applications. This is when QoS is required.
1.2.3    Loss
Besides solving latency and jitter issues, preventing packet loss in applications such as voice and video is critical. Although losing one packet once every great while might not adversely effect these applications, losing too many might produce undesirable results. A long silence might interrupt a conversation, or a video screen might appear blank. In the case of the bank doing surveillance using an IP camera, losing images might have serious consequences.
Packet loss also results from the traffic condition in the network. A converged network carries different application types of data, video, and voice. These different applications must contend for the resources in the network. If the network is congested, packets are dropped because no resources are available. The network must be able to prevent the loss of packets that belong to voice and video applications. This is an area QoS can help in mitigating the risk of packet loss.

  • Bandwidth:  This is characterized as the evaluated throughput limit of a given system medium  . in other way  transfer speed all the more particularly means the portion of data transmission, in light of the fact that QoS does not have the capacity to impact the genuine limit of any given connection. That is to say that no QoS instrument really makes extra data transfer capacity, rather QoS components empower the director to all the more proficiently use the current data transfer capacity. Data transfer capacity is at times likewise alluded to as throughput.
  • Delay:  Delay has a few conceivable implications, however when examining QoS, preparing deferral is the time between when a gadget gets an edge and when that casing is sent out of the destination port, serialization deferral is the time that it take to really transmit a parcel or casing, and end-to-end postponement is the aggregate defer that a bundle encounters from source to destination.
  • Jitter: Jitter is the contrast between inter packet entry and departure that is, the variety in postponement starting with one parcel then onto the next.
  • Packet Loss:  Packet loss is simply losing bundles along the sending way. Packet loss results from numerous reasons, for example, support clogging, line mistakes, or even QoS systems that deliberately drop bundles.

(“Zippy” Grigonis, 2015)

Below examples for QOS:

Bandwidth Required

1.3    LAN concerns

1.3.1 Security 
Dot.edu College  has a security policy in place, it can begin to apply the document and its rules to their particular environment. Dot.edu College  with truly comprehensive security policies find that what they have created is a road map that helps them implement the correct security appliances, mechanisms, and controls that satisfy their particular security needs. Dot.edu College will also quickly begin to find the weaknesses in their security posture through the process of identifying important resources and associated policies and tying that information to current inadequate security controls. This documentation is sure to change over time as the computing and physical environments change, which should be expected and accepted as normal security policy maintenance. The underlying network provides an perfect place to implement core and advanced security solutions.
1.3.2 Scalability  
Scalability point of view network is setup in this manner so that we do  IOS up gradation of switch without any outage and downtime or other word it can refer to the ability of a system to increase its total output under an improved load when resources are added. For instance we are using UTP cat 3 cable and now we need to upgrade it to UTP cat 6 cable.
1.3.3 Availability
It is signified as a percentage of period. How many days, hours, and minutes is the server  electrical infrastructure operational and supplying power over a given time period? Server  availability suffers whenever the electrical infrastructure fails to provide power to the room.
Most companies want extremely high availability for their server , because downtime affects their ability to be productive and perform business functions. How high, though, can vary significantly and is represented by the concept of nines. The more nines of availability, the closer to 100% up time a system or device has reached. For example, that your company brings the DC electrical system offline for one hour of maintenance every month. Assuming there are no additional outages of any kind, that means that the DC is running for all but 12 of the 8760 hours in the year. That’s 99.863% of the time, or two nines of availability.
(Van Lengen, 2015)
Common challenges faced by the network designer are as listed below:

  • •    Securing the network from attacks generated from Internet, Securing Internet facing web, DNS and mail servers.
  • •    Covering damage from compromised systems, and preventing internally launched attacks.
  • •    Securing internal data such as financial records, customer databases, trade secrets, etc.
  • •    Creating a framework for administrators to securely manage the network, securing  network with intrusion detection systems

Below are some of techniques which can be used to make a LAN secure:

  • •    LAN access controls using private VLAN.
  • •    VLAN membership policy server (VMPS).
  • •    VLAN Access Lists (VACLs).
  • •    Port security.
  • •    Port filtering and other LAN security features.
  • •    System firewall for each device to protected threats.

A traditional hierarchical LAN design has three layers:

  • •    The core layer responsible for providing fast transport between distribution switches
  • •    The distribution layer – responsible for policy-based connectivity
  • •    The access layer – responsible for workgroup and user access in network

Each layer of hierarchical model work independently that increase scalability for ex. In college library we have required some network device connection. You can connect one uplink port to another switch on library and after according to requirement we can connect device through new switches. We can expand over network according to over requirement.

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Unit 3 Local Area Networking Technologies Assignment


A local area network (LAN) consists interconnected computers in limited area e.g. in a home, in a building, etc. A LAN has multiple PCs, file servers, hubs, bridges, switches, routers, voice gateways, firewalls, and other devices required to form a LAN. These computers are getting connected with a cable. Purpose of this course is to provide an understanding on design and implementation of Local Area network, configuring network devices and to implement security in network. Security is one of the main aspects of any network, as data security is very important from an organization point of view. This course will help to learn router configuration, packet filter, troubleshooting network, test network performance & Ethernet connection etc. This course will also help to get the understanding of an IP address/pool management for a network.

1    Task 1Unit 3 Local Area Networking Technologies Assignment

1.1    LAN technologies (Wired Technologies)

LAN (Local Area Network) refers to the group of interconnected computers to facilitate communication and information exchange with each other. It also enables users to share resources such as printers, application programs, database etc. i.e. same resources can be used by multiple users in the network irrespective of the physical location of user or resource. There are many LAN technologies available which can help to improve network performance and can be used based on requirement. Primary areas where LAN can be used are Office, Hotels, Colleges, Schools, etc.

Figure 1: Diagram of LAN technologies
Different types of LAN technologies are described below:
1.1.1    Ethernet
Ethernet is a physical medium that is directly connected to Ethernet port of any networking devices. This is used in network to allow all the devices/host present in network to share same bandwidth. Ethernet is widely used LAN technology. Ethernet uses CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection) protocols which help to share bandwidth evenly. As media is shared by all devices, there can be data collisions, it helps to detect collision. Each device in LAN contains separate collision domain and single broadcasting domain. There are two types of Ethernet mode available in market: half duplex & full duplex.
In half duplex data can transmit in both directions but in one direction at a time. Full duplex allows data transmission in both directions at same time i.e. there will be two medium to send and receive data. Ethernet can be of two type based on data transfer speed and distance.
a)    Fast Ethernet (802.3u): This type of Ethernet provides 100 mbps to 1 gigabit transmission speed and can support the distance up to 100 meter. This type of technology uses Cat-5 and Cat-6 cable.
b)    Gigabit Ethernet (802.ae): This tyLAN technologies pe of Ethernet provides 1gbps to 10gbps transmission speed can support up to 40 km. This technology uses fiber optical cable.
(Seifert and Edwards, 2008)
Ethernet: Ethernet is a physical medium that is directly connected to PC Ethernet port of switch or networking device only one PC on a shared Ethernet segment can send a frame at one time, but all stations receive and look at the frame to determine if it is for them. the physical Ethernet specifications up to 100 Mbps.
Ethernet is the underlying basis for the technologies most widely used in LANs. In the 1980s and early 1990s, most networks used 10-Mbps Ethernet, defined initially by Digital, Intel, and Xerox (DIX Ethernet Version II) and later by the IEEE 802.3 working group.
The following are specifications for Ethernet, each of which is described in the following sections:

  • •    10BASE5
  • •    10BASE2
  • •    10BASE-T
  • •    100BASE-T

Fast Ethernet (100-Mbps)
IEEE introduced the IEEE 802.3u-1995 standard to provide Ethernet speeds of 100 Mbps over UTP and fiber cabling. The 100BASE-T standard is similar to 10-Mbps Ethernet in that it uses carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD), runs on Category (CAT) 3, 4, and 5 UTP cable; and preserves the frame formats. Connectivity still uses hubs, repeaters, and bridges. The following are specifications for Fast Ethernet, each of which is described in the following sections:

  • •    100BASE-TX
  • •    100BASE-T4
  • •    100BASE-FX

Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.3ab
Gigabit Ethernet was first identified by two standards: IEEE 802.3z (Gigabit Ethernet) invented in year 1998 and second edition of IEEE 802.3ab in year 1999. The IEEE 802.3z for the operation of Gigabit Ethernet over fiber and IEEE 802.3ab coaxial cable and bring together the Gigabit Media-Independent Interface (GMII). These standards are superseded by the latest revision of all the 802.3 standards included in IEEE 802.3-2002.
Below is an overview of Gigabit Ethernet scalability constraints.

Diagram of VLAN technologies
The following are the physical specifications for Gigabit Ethernet, each of which is described in the following sections:

  • •    1000BASE-LX
  • •    1000BASE-SX
  • •    1000BASE-CX
  • •    1000BASE-T

(Lantronix.com, 2015)
1.1.2    VLANs (Virtual LAN)
VLAN is virtual network that allows sharing of network resources even hosts is located in different segments of network. So in VLAN, we uses same network as a different network without having different network devices. It helps to expand the network and provide more security in network. Every packet that is broadcasted from network can be seen by other network devices in the flat network i.e. there is no security in data transmission. VLANs help in achieving the security by hiding this information. Below are the list of features supported by VLAN:
•    We can add, move or change VLANs by making configurations e.g. in this scenario we have to create separate VLANs for finance department so that no other users from other department can access furnace data.
•    A separate VLAN can be created for a group of users where more secure access is required. Only the allowed users will be able to communicate in same VLAN and no other user from different VLAN will be allowed to communicate with this VLAN.
•    As users are grouped logically based on their functions, VLANs can also be created in same manner irrespective of physical location of users.
•    VLANs help to enhance network security.

Network Latency Diagram
Figure 2: Diagram of VLAN technologies

1.1.3    Wireless LAN
Wireless local area network allows users to connect with network without any wire. To enable this service, network devices needs to be installed on user locations. WLAN uses IEEE 802.11 standard. Access points are used to provide connectivity to end users. Access points works like hub or switches. Access point works on radio frequency to connect networks devices. These devices works in both half duplex & full duplex mode.
(Cisco, 2015)

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Unit 5 Aspects of Contract Negligence for Business

INTRODUCTIONUnit 5 Aspects of Contract Negligence for Business

The present report discusses the various aspects of law of contract and law of negligence and tries to apply different laws on the cases provided so that all the concepts related with law of contract and law of negligence are clear. This report deals with different types of contracts like bilateral, unilateral, written, oral, void and voidable. It also discusses the different types of law of tort and negligence and law of negligent misstatement and vicarious liability. We also see what the implications of law of contract and law of business negligence are on different business scenarios.


Question1: Distinguish between the different types of contract

Answer: Contracts are promises that are made between two parties under definite agreements which are enforceable by law (WRONLISA, 2013).
Unilateral contract:are legal agreements, where only one party, who is the promisor, commits to perform a promise in lieu of a performance from the other party which is the promisee (BLUM, B.A., 2004).
Bilateral contract:are legal agreements that require both the parties to promise in fulfilling an act where one party will receive the other’s act in the future as a reward (BOUNDY, C., 2010).
The Firstly the difference between bilateral and unilateral contract is that in unilateral promise is from one party only whereas in bilateral promise is from both the parties.
Secondly courts prefer the bilateral contracts over the unilateral contract.
Thirdly in bilateral contract both the parties have knowledge about the terms and conditions of the term and both the parties agree to be bound by that, whereas in unilateral contract the parties to the contract do not discuss or have the knowledge about the contract’s terms and conditions (RIORDAN, M, 1982).
Express contract:In express contract the promises and all its terms are clearly stated and also all the elements of the contract like offer, acceptance and consideration are accepted (BAUMEYER, Kat Kadian, 2014).
Implied contract:These types of contracts are not written or expressed clearly, but where because of certain circumstances one person may get unjustly enriched as a result of their actions (BAUMEYER, Kat Kadian, 2014).
Express contracts are complete contracts and are legally valid whereas implied contracts are also known as quasi-contracts, which mean that they are not complete contracts, therefore courts decide the case on the basis that whether this contract existed before the performance or after the performance (BAUMEYER, Kat Kadian, 2014).
In express contract the terms are clearly decided by the parties and they have the knowledge about the contract, whereas in implied contract the common understanding based on the conduct of the parties serves as a contract (BAUMEYER, Kat Kadian, 2014).
Void contract:when a contract is not enforceable by law then that contract is known as a void contract (BUSINESS LAW, 2012).
Voidable contract:is a contract which is enforceable by the law at the option of one or more parties to the contract (BUSINESS LAW, 2012).
A void contract does not create any legal rights; it is actually a total nullity in itself. On the other hand voidable contract can take full legal effect unless it is disputed and set unaccepted by the person entitle to do so.
A void contract is valid when it is entered into by the parties but later on becomes void due to some reasons, whereas voidable contract may be voidable since the contract was made or later on becomes voidable.
When a contract is void because it is illegal, its collateral dealings also becomes void in nature, on the other hand voidable contract does not affect the collateral dealings (BUSINESS LAW, 2012).

Question 2: Answer the case studies below

Case: East Midlands Airways Airbus
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Unit 3 Digital Image Creation & Development Assignment

1.1 Digital image sources

The origin of any image including digital image is the photographs and artworks. Normally a digital image can be created by a digital camera effortlessly. Analogue formats can also be converted into digital by a scanner or any other devices similar to that. All digital cameras use CCD (Couple Charge Device) to capture the images and save them in a memory card or the camera’s internal memory. The light passes through the camera’s lens and the aperture forming an image. On the other hand, analogue form of images like photographs, photographic films and printed paper are initially scanned and then the scanned copy is refurbished using dynamic imagining technique. Now-a-days, mobile phones come with camera due to the development in technology which can also be used as a source to digital images. Digital images that are to be made are developed with two sources namely; primary and secondary sources (Rafael and Gonzalez, 2005). The final rendering will be a digital image with the sources in it.
Primary Source:Primary sources are nothing but the first-hand art work or object or a person. Here talking about digital imaging, the primary source would be the initial/chief image/point of image supply. Few of the sources that can be considered primary are;

  • Creative works
  • Old photographs
  • Diaries
  • Letters
  • Work of art, architecture, literature and other artefacts
  • Memos and newspaper articles
  • Managing Financial records and text reports

The mentioned sources are common examples and sometimes only few are in terms of digital imaging.
Secondary Source:The source that doesn’t have an adjacency to the immediate record is secondary source. These are also considered as sources but they lack originality. Secondary sources are formed by taking surveys, getting comments and analysis, interpreting journals and book reviews.
An example is given below to know the difference between primary and secondary sources.
Unit 37 Digital Image Creation & Development Sample Assignmnet

1.2 Creating digital image from source

Images in digital formats are created using capturing devices and by developing using primary and secondary sources. Here the explanation of how a fantasy art is rendered using Metadata is explained.
How to create a digital image for a specific purpose?
Before starting the work, the purpose is to be identified. In this assignment task fantasy illustration is given and hence fantasy art is goal. The word fantasy means imagination or dream and hence for creating a fantasy art, the right kind of imagination is needed. If drawing with imagination as source is not possible, the right kind of images should be mixed to produce a fantasy level image (Trushel and Vrhel, 2008).

How to look for sources?
Once the purpose is knownUnit 37 Digital Image Creation & Development Sample Assignment, the sources are searched and the image is developed accordingly. Here either multiple images or imagination can be the source of the image.

The image is a creative mix of the woods and an archer. The primary sources are a photographic picture of a jungle and a lady archer. The digital image here is drawn instead of manipulations of the primary sources.
Primary Sources
Unit 37 Digital Image Creation & Development Sample Assignment

The completed digital image presented was made using a 2D bitmap image editor ‘Photoshop’ by Adobe Creative Suites. Initially by looking at the woods picture, an imaginary jungle was drawn with quite some details.
The woods background

Then once the background is ready, the archer is painted in the desired location. By creating a new layer in Photoshop, the background stays unaltered. If no new layer is created, the background becomes a part of the new paint which will make it hard to correct the new paint without altering the background.


2.1 Formats and fundamentals

Image processing can be considerUnit 37 Digital Image Creation & Development Sample Assignment ed as a transformation of a particular image into an enhanced image. Its definition states that it is the analysis and manipulation of an image just to improve its quality. The fundamental steps of image processing are; Image grabbing, pre-processing, segmentation, representation and feature extraction and finally recognition and interpretation (safaribooksonline, n.d).
Image grabbing is the primary step and a camera is used for this step. Let’s assume a mechanical company which produces components as an example. In order to detect defect, a camera is placed which clicks many images in a second. There are two types of camera called the monochrome which photographs in black and white/grey scale and a colour camera. Then these images of the components are subjected to digitization (Caroline, 2010). Next to this step is the pre-processing step which has to enhance the image so that there are higher possibilities of success in the steps that are to come. Enhancing brightness/contrast, removing noise in the image, isolating interest objects in the image etc. are few examples of what will happen during pre-processing. Once pre-processing is done, the image is segmented. Segmentation is the process of extracting the border of interest objects from background. Feature extraction is the next step that follows which selects the important characteristics of an object in the image (Rafael and Gonzalez, 2005). The final process is the recognition process which will label the image with the information provided by the feature extraction.


Unit 37 Digital Image Creation & Development Sample Assignment 

2.2 Digital management technique to store imagery

Images are converted from their analogue form and then saved in a digital form. These digital forms are called as compressions and there are two types of compression namely the lossy and the lossless. Lossy compressions are a type of compression where the image data which is compressed is lost whereas it’s not lost in Lossless compression (Rafael and Gonzalez, 2005). Lossless compressions are mainly used for archiving purposes in the field of medical imaging, technical and clip art or comics. Lossy images are widely preferred for photographs where minimal loss of dependability is acceptable. The extensions of Lossy compressions are .JPG, .JPEG, .JIF, .JFIF and .JPE and of Lossless compressions are .BMP, .TGA, .TIFF, .GIF, .PNG and .MNG (Caroline, 2010). The best compression is a compression where the image quality is unaltered but taking properties like scalability, region of interest coding, Meta information or Metadata and Process powering are important to be considered.

Data Documentation
Data documentation embodies the following

  • Names, labels and variable description
  • Code of compression and code explanation
  • Reason for missing code value
  • Data listing with descriptions of cases

Most of these data are recorded in the metadata end. Metadata gives the framework for any research data by providing explanatory details about it. Metadata is for almost all files that can be saved (Trushel and Vrhel, 2008). Metadata for photographs gives a detail about the person who owns it, the copyright, contact information, the camera with which the image was captured and it’s settings, compression type, date and time and quality of the image. An example of a metadata is given below.


Unit 37 Digital Image Creation & Development Sample Assignment




3.1 Use of software tools to manipulate digital images

Digital images can be manipulated with the relevant software development for increasing the quality and creativity of images. Examples of those kinds of software are Adobe Photoshop, Microsoft picture manager, GNU image manipulation program, Maya and so on. These tools have all the techniques and sub tools for creating digital images (Rafael and Gonzalez, 2005). We have used Microsoft office picture manager to manipulate the digital image and the original and manipulated images are shown below. Microsoft office picture manager is simple and easy to use image manipulation software which comes along with Microsoft office package. It is having only fewer image manipulation features.Unit 37 Digital Image Creation & Development Sample Assignment

This Unit 37 Digital Image Creation & Development Sample Assignment is solely for reference and understanding purpose. Order now for complete copy of this assignment

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Unit 4 Business Environment Assignment Armani

4.1 Discuss the importance of international trade, and globalization to Tesco or other organisations. Use the varieties of examples to support your answer.

International trade occurs when there is exchange of goods and services across national boundary. It allows flows of economic resources – capital, labour, technology, and production to countries, as well as sharing knowledge and cultural values for the benefits of mankind and national and international marketing development. Tesco PLC is the UK’s largest retailer and has its presence in 12 countries all around the world. If the revenue and market share of Tesco is considered, it is the 3rd largestUnit 4 Business Environment Assignment Armani retailer in the world. In UK, Tesco has captured around 29% retail market and now it is expanding to overseas countries to exploit the benefits of the international trade.

  • Importance of international trade and globalisation:As new markets are opened, resources are deployed though investments. Companies can take advantage of relocating its operations or selling and distribution of its products and services thus creating revenue potential and profit for companies taken advantage of these opportunities. Tesco has its different operations in India, China, Japan, Malaysia and many other Asian countries and the company is getting benefitted a lot by its facilities in India and China because in these countries, there is no big brand in the retail market and Tesco has easily acquired lots of market share in the retail industry in India and China (Oestreich, 2004). These new international markets have helped Tesco to maintain a sustainable growth even if it is facing tough competition in its home market UK.
  • It creates organisations competitions:International trade creates intense competition among companies. For example, when Tesco started its operations in India, some other organisations in India has started to invest in the retail grocery market and a new competition has been started in this industry which is helping the customers in getting the quality products on the cheaper price.
  • It makes it easier for the movements cheap financial capital those really need its:Movements of financial capital make it easier for firms to access funds at cheaper cost of capital for investment. And companies’ reaches saturation or decline market, they can look for investment to emerging markets because there are cheaper sources of across the globe which can be accessed. The easy transfers of profits or dividends also make it for company willingness to relocate its overseas operations where cheap capital can be found.
  • Easier movement of skilled labour to where the demand is low:Easier movements of skilled labour where their needed. Workers feel free to move to a country where their skilled are needed as a result there is no shortage in the market and labour cost is cheaper forms thus achieve labour cost competitiveness among firms. It is a well known fact that India, China and many other Asian countries have huge man power which comes on a far too less pay as compared to the UK labour. This is the reason; Tesco is now planning to open its full fledged production facilities in India and China.
  • International trade improve standard of living among international trading partners:The international trade has also affected the life of the people and now because of the globalisation, the people of the developing countries are also able to get the quality products from the multinational organisations. The UK organisations like Tesco are now expanding in the developing countries and making the lives of the people easier and comfortable.

4.2 Analyse in what ways the role of WTO, emerging markets (BRIC) and protectionist tendencies of national government may impact the UK organisations in the coming 10 years.

The World Trade Organisation (WTO) is global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business. WTO ensures that there are fair trading practices among partner countries across the globe and its work can be summarized as: ‘To stimulate economic growth and employment, cut the cost of doing business, internationally encourage good governance help countries develop, give the weak a stronger voice and support the environment and health’

Its functions are for example to:

  • Administering WTO trade agreements
  • Forum for trade negotiations
  • Handling trade disputes
  • Monitoring national trade policies
  • Technical assistance and training for developing countries
  • Cooperation with other international organizations

As mentioned in the previous section, the emerging markets like India and China are now become the focus on Tesco and company is concentrated a lot in these markets because these markets have huge potential for growth. Although there are some protectionist policies of the overseas countries which tries to make sure that their local organisations also stay in the competition and no organisation from other country like Tesco dominate the home market. That is why there are FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) policies are being developed by the government of these countries which make sure that Tesco do not have the controlling share in a local organisation especially in the public sector.

The barriers to international trade through protectionism is being dismantle giving way to global trade, which benefits companies leading to world economic growth, better standard of living among nations. The international competitiveness among nations and multi-national companies in particular has created market opportunities, movements in technology and technical skills across national boundaries (Dolia, 2012). The Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) is the policy initiated by European Union to implements agricultural subsidies to farmers and landowners of the member countries. This policy impacted on UK agriculture and of recent this policy is criticized for preventing fair trading and competition among some member countries.

The EU policies which are related to the fair competition in the market have been incorporated by the UK government and the EU commission is making sure that the free market economy could be established 100%. The EU Competition policy has given the opportunity to the new small organisations to grow and find new methods in the business processes for the increased efficiency (Lee, 2006). Because of this, the innovation has become one tool which is now setting up the stage of exponential growth of the UK market and in the coming 10 years, the UK market would set an example for the rest of the world. Tesco is aware of this trend and that is why Tesco has already started its online e-commerce stores in many countries where people could order from the e-commerce websites and mobile application and receive the delivery of the products at their door step.

4.3 Evaluate the impact of policies of the European Union on UK business organisations by using Armani or other organisations.

European Union competition policy regulation of competitiveness want to ensure that organisations do not create trade barriers through cartels and monopolies that would damage the economic interests of society (Moreno-Dodson, 2013).

Through the following activities, for example:

  • Mergers, control of proposed mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures involving companies that have a certain, defined amount of turnover in the EU, according to the Merger Regulation
  • Cartels, or control of collusion and other anti-competitive practices, under article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).
  • Market Dominance, or preventing the abuse of firms’ dominant market positions under article 102 TFEU.

Some other policies of EU which have great impacts on the Tesco are:

  • EUETS:The EUETS policy of the EU is mainly concerned with the emission of carbon by the production facilities of the organisations in the EU countries and EU has implemented this policy very strictly to make sure that the environment in the EU countries remains healthy for the people. EU is very strict about the emission of carbon and other harmful chemicals from the Tesco Production facilities and asked the company to use the proper hardware and processes to make sure that the waste from the production facilities does not pollute the environment.
  • Free Movement of Labour: This is one policy which has given relief of many UK organisations when it comes to get the cheap and skilled labour in the local area. Most of the production facilities face issues of non availability of the cheap labour in the nearby locations and now EU has made it free for the employees to cross the borders of the EU countries so that they could migrate to the area where work is available (Morrison and Wilhelm, 2007). This has resolved the issues of unemployment and scarcity of the human resources.

Tesco has established its facilities in the EU countries where the cost of land and taxes are less and now company is exporting the labour from the other countries where labour is cheaper. The free movement of labour across the EU countries has made it easy for Tesco to reduce the production cost and improve the revenue and Customs Taxation of the organisation. It is also benefitting Tesco in providing the cheaper products with good quality to the people. France, Hungry and Poland are some examples where Tesco started its operations only because of the liberated EU policies and now company is making lots of profit from these markets.

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Botha, A., Kourie, D., & Snyman, R. (2014). Coping with continuous change in the business environment: knowledge management and knowledge management technology. Elsevier.
Chavis, L. W., Klapper, L. F., & Love, I. (2011). The impact of the business environment on market structure. The world bank economic review, 25(3), 486-507.
Cuciniello, V. (2009). The impact market  interactions on government size and macroeconomic performance. Economic Modelling, 26(5), pp.918-925.
Engelen, E. (2010). Making Armani fit for purpose. Soundings, 44(1), pp.179-186.
Fanta, A. (2012). Customer Satisfaction in Commercial Online stores. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
Fender, J. (2012). Armani; an inspiration to the new business organisations. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
Grigoroudis, E., Tsitsiridi, E., & Zopounidis, C. (2013). Linking customer satisfaction, employee appraisal, and business performance: an evaluation methodology in the fashion sector. Annals of Operations Research, 205(1), 5-27.
GaliÌ, J. and Gertler, M. (2009). International dimensions of market structure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
ItoÌ, T. and Rose, A. (2007). Fiscal policy and management in Italy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kenny, G. (2012). From the stakeholder viewpoint: designing measurable objectives. Journal of Business Strategy, 33(6), pp.40-46.

Assignment Help UK that we are providing is the best quality assignments and language is used is simple that is easy to understand for students.

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Unit 4 Advertising and Promotion Assignment


Q. 11 The integration of promotional techniques into a promotional strategy for West field

Maximising football is the main part of every retail expansion strategy. Expansion in football is crucial if the business is to obtain long-term goals and increase the revenues.

  • Tidy up Westfield shop front: Competition on the high street is severe. Indeed in the present climate retailers are struggling for every last consumers. Thus, it is crucial that the premises of Westfield are made attractive. Sometimes it is seen that the huge maximisation in football by making decision minor alterations. Something as easy as leaving the face door of Westfield shop open may support to make the shop more accessible and motivate consumer to enter (Brun, 2011).
  • Alliance with local business: It is required to partner with the local businesses to obtain benefits from the association.
  • Moving into the street: various retailers assume that they are restricted through the four walls of their premises. But it is not so meeting consumers on the street may be proved to be an adequate method of enticing them into the shop of Westfield and creating awareness of the brand.
  • Creating customer Loyalty: Schemes of loyalty are an effective way of maximising football between the current customers. According to Pennington (2010), the firm may maximise their repeat business by facilitating discounts to returning customers.
  • Considering the offering: To increase the sales, it is necessary to be assured of the products which are offered in by the shop If the shopkeeper is unsure, then he should pay a visit to a competitor to observe what they are offering.
  • Boosting the marketing: It is essential that the probable consumers should have knowledge about the firm and its products For the purpose of obtaining this, the firm needs to be sure of their marketing effort are comprehensive (Robertson, 2015). There are a number of ways through which an organization can boost its marketing efforts. The situational analysis includes actual and potential market size, Current trends of the market, consumer department, and distribution channel.

The three objectives of the promotional campaign are:

  • Recognition of the brand
  • Increase in Sales
  • Goodwill

The targeted audience of the campaign are affluent; wealthy as well as energetic who are likely to invest more funds.

Q. 12 Planning of the incorporation of promotional methods into the promotional strategy for a business

Promotional methods are utilized to draw attention of the customers. The firms require designing the promotional operations adequately for the purpose of enabling to expand the name of the brand. To sell the goods, firms utilise various methods but their aim is similar. The Westfield need to follow the following:

  • Arranging campaign and showing presentation on their operations
  • Creating informative website.

SMART objectives, Unit 18 Advertising & Promotion Assignment Westfield Shopping, Advertising & Promotion Assignment Westfield Shopping, Assignment Help UK, Assignment Help, Online Assignment Help, Assignment Writing Service, Assignment Help Coventry

Q. 13 Process for the formulation of a budget for an incorporated promotional strategy

Making budget for incorporating promotional strategy is crucial for each firm. Budget is a financial strategy made for a specific period. It includes percentage of sales, competitive parity, customer expectation, etc. Budget is made according to the percentage of sales after ascertain the percentage of sale the budget is determined. Competitive equality is the other process of integration of promotional strategy (Speller, and Stolee, 2014), it is to be kept in mind that the customers of the firm expect low price and quality goods keeping in mind the budget to be made.

Q. 14 Adequate methods for measuring campaign effectiveness

“Promotions are time specific and may be short term while advertising may be generically long term. For example: ABS company may start a promotion of giving free drinks at a mall for a day during the festive season, while the same company may advertise much before about their drink at the start of the festive season and extend it during and beyond the season” (Diffen, 2015).  The effectiveness of the campaign can be measured through the response of the customers. If the customer’s feedback is good then it can be ascertained that the campaign is successful. The effectiveness of the campaign can be measured through loyalty of the customers, if the customer’s loyalty is increased for the Westfield it could be ascertained that the campaign is successful (Pennington, 2010). Of course, the best way of measuring the same is in terms of the revenue earned by the organization behaviour. If the revenue of the organization has increased or is increasing it can be perceived that the consumers are responding well.


To survive and become accomplish in the competitive market advertising and promotional operations is essential. It is recognise by this Unit 18 Advertising & Promotion Assignment Westfield Shopping that it is up to the Westfield to select adequate approach and utilise them in adequate manner. However, the consequence will have an impact not just on the firm but also the persons associated with it.

References List

Brun, E. (2011). Expert forecast on emerging chemical risks related to occupational safety and health. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
Cruickshank, I. and Cork, S. (2010). Construction health and safety in coastal and maritime engineering. London: Thomas Telford.
MURATA, T. (2011). CIVIL ENGINEERS’ ROLES IN PUBLIC WORKS. Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. F5 (Professional Practices in Civil Engineering), 67(1), pp.102-107.
Pennington, H. (2010). Food safety: Unfinished business. Perspectives in Public Health, 130(4), pp.157-158.
Roesset, J. and Yao, J. (2010). Roles of Civil Engineering Faculty. J. Prof. Issues Eng. Educ. Pract., 126(1), pp.8-15.
Diffen,. (2015). Advertising vs Promotion – Difference and Comparison | Diffen. Diffen.com. Retrieved 7 December 2015, from http://www.diffen.com/difference/Advertising_vs_Promotion
Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE), (2015). ICE: The home of civil engineering. [online] Available at: https://www.ice.org.uk/ [Accessed 5 Dec. 2015].

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Unit 3 Business Environment Assignment Armani

3.1 Explain how market structures determine the pricing and output decisions in various organisations.

Market structure in economics represents the number of organisation producing identical or similar products which are the same.

  • The costs structure– The cost structure determine pricing and output decision of the firm. The higher the costs the higher the price as firm tries to maximise their profit. And the higher the costs, firms would need more financial resources to increase production capacity (Kenny, 2012). However, consumers must be willing to pay the price they can afford and this leads to demand and supply mechanism.
  • Availability of substitute products – will also determine pricing and output decisions. The  more substitute products or services are in the market, the more consumers have a choice to buy the substitute product they can afford to buy.
  • The level and intensity of competition in the market has influence and determine pricing and output decision by the firm. As consumers have wide range of choice, it forces the prices down and ultimately, output.
  • The market share of the largest firms – The more dominant the largest firms dominate the market, the more pressure on prices and output, however, the small firms can still under-cut the market share of the large firm through lower  cost-base thus offering product at a cheaper price. An example is Tesco, Sainsbury and Asda supermarket vs. discount supermarket chains like Lidl, Iceland or Aldi.
  • The structure of buyers in the industry- Consumers buying behaviour, brand loyalty and taste influence how much to spend of a product or service also influence pricing and output decision of firms. Organisations may use for example advertising campaign to change these perceptions.

3.2 Illustrate the ways in which market forces shape organisational using a range of examples from Armani or other organisations.

Market forces are economic factors, price, demand, supply that affect the availability of goods and services.  Price plays an important part in shaping the demand for and supply of goods and services. The higher the price, the less goods the consumers are willing to pay. And the higher the price, producers would be willing go flood the market because of profit motive to sell more of the product (s). Armani products designed to meet higher end of the market as well as targeting lower income. Tesco’s higher prices for its products are forcing even loyal customer switching to other competitors for example, Asda, Sainsbury, etc. The pricing level will also be determined by the cost of production. The higher the cost of production, the higher the price the firm will be willing to charge, and vice versa. This market force will affect Armani product as well.

The level of competition in the market place will also affect the price, supply and demand of goods and services this will determine profit objective of companies (Koetter, 2008). Armani or other firms can change these market forces by undertaking intensity of advertising and promotion campaign influences demand for its product. Armani, Apple, Samsung, etc use this market force to enjoy high demand for its products as a result of continue improving or product quality as well as intensive advertising campaign. The Porter’s 5 Forces could be used to describe the market forces which affect the Armani.

  • The Bargaining power of Customer: When Armani started its business, there were not many organisations in the field of fashion clothing and when Armani came up with the luxurious products, the wealthy people could not restrain themselves from buying those products. At that time, Armani had the monopoly in the fashion industry, but now there are many other options available in the industry who provide the same luxurious products with matching quality. Hence, now the customer has got the bargaining power which would affect the pricing of Armani products.
  • The Bargaining power of the Suppliers: As the organisations in the fashion industry increasing, the suppliers have now got many customers in the form of these organisations and now they can bargain with Armani on the rates of the raw material.
  • Threat of New Entrants: Initially new organisation never invested a lot in the business but nowadays, most of the start-up organisations are backed up by the investors and big business housee. Because of this, the new organisations are able to invest on the quality and also on the marketing of the products. This kind of new entrants would be a threat to Armani.
  • Threat of Substitute: Nowadays, the products of the Armani are not remained exclusive and many other organisations are able to match the design and quality of the products of the Armani. This provides the alternatives to the customers and they could go for a substitute product instead of Armprice and quantity curve, Business, Management, Education, Business environment, Unit 1 Business Environment Assignment Armani, Assignment Help UK, Assignment Help, Online Assignment Help, Assignment Writing Service, Assignment Help Coventry ani’s.
  • Competition Rivalry: Since, Armani is operating in the free market economy; the competition is tough in the market. Every day a new organisation is coming in the industry and testing the quality and prices of the Armani products. The innovation in the industry has also become one of the leading factors in the competition and if Armani leaves even a tiny opportunity for other organisations, they would not take time to grab that and create problem for Armani.

The level of demand for Armani products are determined by a numbers of factors, including the quality, brand or labels and availability of substitute brands. Since there is the threat of substitute in the market, the law of demand which states that if the prices of a product is high when the substitute is available in the market, the demand will be decreased, and Armani would have to lower the prices of its products.


The supply of goods and services is another market force that shape organisation’s pricing, productions and market strategy. The higher the price consumers are willing to pay, the higher the quantity that firms are willing to produce and supply on to the market. Armani or any firm will not be willing to produce of the price to be paid is lower than the cost of production or company’s expected return on capital or investment. The Law of Supply suits the Armani group which states that of the price of a particular product in the market is high, it means that the supply of the product would also be high in the market. The luxurious products of Armani which are very costly have high supply by the company.

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3.3 Judge how business and cultural environments shape the behaviour of Armani.

Organisational culture is defined ‘as the shared values and assumptions within an organisation. The culture of an organisation also emphasizes what the company values as important and can shape the behaviours and personalities of individuals in the firm’ (Kumar, 2014). The understanding of culture environment and organisational behaviour is critical for company and everyone within the organisation and can contribute to the success of a company. The share values, perceptions, beliefs, attitudes are parts of the key drivers of organisational performance. For example, organisations that embraces and value fun, place importance on customer-focus and entrepreneurial spirits among its workforce tend to do well. Armani, for example, pride its success to employee’s commitment to the organisation’s long-term value of customer service and to provide prestigious and high quality products style and pleasure to customers’ lives. An organisational culture, in addition, can be shared values and assumptions and also seen through for example:

  • Physical structures: The physical structure of Armani is hierarchical and there are many levels in the organisation which are expanded from the owner of the company, top management, managers and lower level employees. Armani is known for taking care of its employees and the employees of the company have the freedom of speech and say in the decision making process which makes them loyal to the company. Along with the hierarchical structure in the organisation, Armani did the renovations of its 16 stores and also opened 30 new stores in 2002. Now the company is focusing on the e-commerce and trying to make the sales by its online portals in the different countries.
  • Rituals and ceremonies: Armani is a 40 years old organisation and the organisation has its own rituals and ceremonies which are not much changed since its birth. Armani has always respected the art and creativity and this one aspect of the company makes all the difference in the market.
  • Stories and legends: Mr. Armani is a legend and not only the employees of the Armani Group but also his competitors respect him for what he has done for the industry and still doing. He is a self made man and never compromised for the exponential growth of the business. This is what makes him inspirational for the employees and motivate them.
  • Language: Armani is a multinational organisation and has it business in around 46 countries. There are employees from different origins and backgrounds with different languages, but it has never hindered their work as most of them know how to communicate professionally.

A strong organisational culture can developed into a strong workforce-organisational identity that brings the best out of people. This relationship can develop into a strong performance culture towards achieving organisational goals, and a strong culture can enable an organisation to be more effective. Armani’s success as a global fashion icon is attributed to this strong this organisational-culture identity because, it aligned its culture to the environment. The values of Armani and indeed, other successful companies like Coca Cola, Facebook, Google for example, is in tune with the market place, competition, technology and social environments. Armani’s cultural environment and behaviour foster good working relationship excellent customer service with its stakeholders, for example, suppliers, customers, product designers, global partners.

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